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Polymers are multifaceted materials. This feature of polymer facilitates the people to manipulate the properties and behavior of the polymers according the requirement in the application area. This makes possible to provide a way to made polymer as a part in many trending inventions in medical, scientific, bio medical and electronics fields. In all such fields scientist have been combine the molecules of the polymers with other functional substances and produce a new featured polymer with desired features and properties.

Many monomers are merged together to form a Polymer. Polymer is a combination of repeated long chain units of monomers. Most of the monomers are alkenes with double bond which react in addition to their unsaturated double bonds. To bond two monomer molecules the double bond electrons are used. Once a Polymer is formed all the double bonds are converted a single bonds. Polymers are many types such as linear chain polymers, lightly branched polymers, combed polymers and star polymers.

Polymers synthesis determines the molecular structure and it will help us to avoid side reactions and achieve a worthy product. Polymerization polymers can be of many types. First one is the Chain growth polymerization and second is Step growth polymerization. In chain growth, polymerization is activated by the activation of neighboring monomers of a monomer. High molecular weight polymers are obtained quickly with a rapid process of chain growth polymerization. On the other hand, in step growth polymerization, bi functional monomers are combined in a systematic approach to build covalent bonds. In this process molecular weight increases slowly and in step wise

Normally Polymers are insulators for electricity but to enable their insulating capability conductive materials like silver have been added to the chemical formulation. It will extend the conductivity of the electricity. The reasons like polymer is good insulator of heat, it can form any shape, have low density, require low finishing cost and solubility in organic solvents, made it suitable for electronics. Depending on the type of charge transport by the carriers in the polymers Polymer conductor are divided into two classes. One is Ionically conductive polymer and another is Electronically conductive polymer. Because of the above said reasons polymers can be used in many electronics devices TV screens, printable electronics, sensors, flexible electronics and in electromechanical applications. Polymers can also be used in the optical fiber which links the remote location to a network of management console.

 

Processing of plastic can be justified as process of producing semi-finished products from the raw plastic materials. Plastics are organic polymers with high molecular mass; they contain other substances as well. Most commonly plastics are derived from petrochemicals and also partially other plastics are organic plastics. Polymer’s side chains and backbone chemical structure is useful in classifying it. Variety of methods used to process the plastic. We can decide which method to use depends upon the application area of the plastic. Some of the important plastic processing techniques are, Injection molding, Plasticextrusion, Blow molding, Thermo forming, compression molding, Calendering, Pultrusion, Vaccum forming and rotational molding.

Two or more constituent materials are composed to produce a Composition material. The both distinct materials are having different chemical and physical properties and the composite material is produced with characteristics differs from both individual composed materials. Such type of composite materials is preferred because of many reasons popularly stronger, lighter or less expensive when compared to traditional products.

 

On the other hand, biodegradable Biopolymers can be digested in aerobic condition to produce home compost or industrial compost. In aerobic degradation process, biochemical in the soil helps us to convert the polymers as compost. Biopolymers digested in anaerobic state can be used as biogas. In the way of anaerobic bio-degradation of polymers chemical recycling is applied. Basic process in chemical recycling is done by selective dissolution from the mixed streams of waste. And chemical recycling can also use the de-polymerization to recycle the biopolymers. In Chemical recycling Biopolymers went through the many phases in which recycling is performed together with fossil-based counterpart.


Biopolymers and Bioplastics are produced by the natural substancesMicroorganism produces Bioplastics from the used plastic containers and agricultural by products. On the other hand common fossil-fuel plastics are derived from the natural resources like petroleum and natural gas. In the process of Bioplastic production, polymers are used which are obtained from the natural organism. The molecules primarily known as monomeric modules are exist in the Bioploymers to produce large structures. According to monomeric molecule structure used, Biopolymer can be categorized into three main classes. The classes are, Ploynucleotids, Polypetides and Polysaccharides. Rubber and Cellulose is the most common compound and biopolymer on the Earth.  

 

A survey stated that 14% of Biopolymer usage is expected to grow in the year of 2022. That survey motivates us to find the methods and ways to recycle and manage the Biopolymer waste. Once a biopolymer product is used, it can be changed as any of the recycled product. Biopolymers can be biodegradable Biopolymers can be recycled and non-degradable biopolymers can be littered or land filled. In rare cases, Biopolymers can also dissolved in water. Although there are several options to manage the biopolymer waste such recycling and digestion to make it as compost. Such recycling methods have positive impact on environment and economy. Littering and land filling help us to manage the waste and on the other hand it is also possible to recycle the biopolymers mechanically and chemically. In any type of recycling the waste should be collected and sorted in order to decide whether to recycle or to landfill. The Pre-consumed Biopolymers can be easy to collect, low contaminated where as post-consumed Biopolymers hard to collect, highly contaminated.

Now a day, 3D printer gives the possibility to the human to create anything virtually by taking any raw material from metal and ceramic to sugar. Earliest days of 3D printing is limited to produce the product with plastic and it provides possibility to use any kind of material in the 3D printing. Mostly used plastics in the 3D printing are Polylactic acid (PLA), Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol Plastic (PVA). These three kinds of plastics stimulate the evolution of 3D printing. In addition to these plastics on the other hand we can use the various types of plastics like Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polycarbonate, Carbon fiber.



 


In the petroleum industry Polymerization is the process of transforming light olefin gases into hydrocarbons of higher molecular weight and higher octane number. The olefin gases consist of ethylene, propylene and butylenes. Polymerization in petroleum refinery combines two or more identical olefin gases molecules to form a single molecule with same proportions of the substances as in the original. This polymerization is done in the presence of catalyst and accomplished thermally at lower temperatures.


Another interesting field related to polymers is Polymers Design and Reaction. In this field we are using many designs to understand the reactions of the polymers. Generally polymers tend to viscous. It often imposes lower limits on their concentrations in diluents. In order to observe such reactions we must have design. Reaction system design can be made by considering various factors like product sequence, reactor configuration, reactor conditions, heat removal, fluid mechanics, mass-transfer limitations, thermo dynamics constraints, process dynamics and reactor stability.


Polymeric physics deals with physical modeling of polymers. Polymeric material chemistry facilitates the chemical synthesis which allows the designing and study of new materials. The synthesis is performed with useful physical characteristics like magnetic, optical, catalytic and structural properties.

 


 


Colloid is a solution in which a tiny dispersed insoluble or soluble particle are suspended throughout another substance. Colloid has two phases dispersed and continuous phase that arise by phase separation. If the mixture does not settle or take very long time to settle it is considered as qualified colloid. Polymer Science is inherited from the field in which new materials such as solids are designed and discovered. As like that, solid synthetic polymers elastomers and plastics are considered as primary materials to be ascertaining in the field of Polymer Science.



 


Plastic materials vary substantially. Different monomer chemistries, additives, reinforcements, molecular weight and many other variables give hundreds of families of plastic materials and tens of thousands of grades. An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (i.e., both thickness and flexibility) and powerless intermolecular powers, and for the most part low Young's modulus and high disappointment strain contrasted and different materials.

 

A polymer is an expansive particle, or macromolecule, made out of many rehashed subunits. Because of their expansive scope of properties, both manufactured and common polymers assume fundamental and pervasive jobs in regular day to day existence. Polymers run from well-known manufactured plastics, for example, polystyrene to common biopolymers, for example, DNA and proteins that are central to organic structure and capacity