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9th Edition of International Conference on Polymer Science and Technology, will be organized around the theme “Polymer scientific knowledge in advanced technologies”
Euro Polymer Science 2023 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Euro Polymer Science 2023
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The advantages of lower weight, flexibility, lower manufacturing costs, easier integration with other products, low environmental impact during manufacturing and operations, and quick energy payback times make organic material-based solar cells—in particular polymeric solar cells—an appealing alternative to silicon-based solar cells for capturing solar energy. The reproducibility of these efficiencies, even with the most recent efficiencies reported up to 17%, is subpar, with a large range in the efficiencies claimed across the literature. Interfaces are crucial to the functioning and functionality of these devices since they are built on ultrathin multilayer organic sheets.
With an emphasis on their physical mechanisms, this paper provides a succinct description of the main interfacial concerns that are in charge of affecting the performance of the device. The fundamentals of polymeric solar cells are introduced, and then a brief discussion of charge production and recombination at the donor-acceptor bulk heterojunction interface follows. The performance and stability of these devices are next discussed in relation to the interfacial morphology for the active layer. The creation of injection and extraction barriers is then explained along with how they affect the functionality of the device. The usage of interface dipoles is one of the most popular methods for removing these obstacles in order to increase solar cell efficiency.
Conducting polymers can be mixed with inorganic nanoparticles of various types and sizes to create a variety of Nano composites with intriguing physical characteristics and significant practical possibilities. In this review, such Nano composites have been covered, shedding light on their methods of production, characteristics, and uses. In this regard, a wide range of nanoparticles have been selected, and both chemical and electrochemical approaches have been used in the inclusion techniques. TEM images can be used to study the type of relationship between the components. The final qualities of the resultant composite are regulated by the synthesis methods and the properties of the inorganic ingredients. In this manner, stable PPy-silica and PAn-silica Nano composite colloids have been created by utilizing the excellent colloidal stability of certain silica sols.
High strength or modulus to weight ratios (lightweight yet relatively stiff and strong), toughness, resilience, resistance to corrosion, lack of conductivity (heat and electrical), color, transparency, processing, and low cost are a few advantageous characteristics of numerous engineering polymers. In reality, a large portion of polymers' beneficial traits are specific to them and result from their long chain molecular structure.
Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) made from cellulose, a stringy fiber found in plants, as opposed to the seeds or fruit of the same plant. It can be made from plants like grass, wood, algae, or other types of plants. The usage of it as a biofuel is frequently considered. Cellulosic ethanol fuel has the potential to have a lower carbon footprint than fossil fuels because some of the carbon dioxide that is released while burning it is countered by the carbon dioxide that plants absorb as they develop.
Cellulosic ethanol is gaining attention due to its potential to displace ethanol produced from corn or sugarcane. The use of these plants for ethanol production could increase food prices because they are also used to make food products; cellulose-based sources, on the other hand, often do not compete with food because most plant components that are fibrous to humans are not edible. The enormous diversity and quantity of cellulose sources—grasses, trees, and algae are present in practically every ecosystem on Earth—is another possible benefit. It is conceivable to produce ethanol from even the parts of municipal solid refuse like paper. Cellulosic ethanol's high production cost, which is more complicated and time-consuming than ethanol made from corn or sugarcane, is now its biggest drawback.
The environment benefits greatly from up cycling. It accomplishes two things at once: it makes something new out of stuff we already have. Reusing things lessens the need to make new ones out of materials that are unethically sourced or unsustainable, like plastic. Imagine a pair of shoes constructed from used water bottles. Upcycling plastic not only stops the accumulation of plastic waste, but it also produces new shoes without requiring additional resources.
Self-assembly is the process by which the constituent parts of a system, whether they be molecules, polymers, colloids, or macroscopic particles, arrange themselves into ordered and/or functional structures or patterns as a result of particular, local interactions between the constituent parts, without the assistance of an outside force. A well-known direct problem of computational DSA simulations is the prediction of directed self-assembly (DSA) patterns from given chemoepitaxy or graphoepitaxy guiding patterns. Finding guiding graphoepitaxy or chemoepitaxy patterns that result in desired DSA patterns is the main focus of this chapter.
In the past 20 years, polymeric drug delivery technologies have made significant advancements. A formulation or a tool that facilitates the entry of a medicinal material into the body is known as polymeric drug delivery. Many innovative medication delivery techniques are made possible by biodegradable and bioreducible polymers. The development of the field has been mandated by the research's potential for use in practical applications in the future.
Pharmaceutical fields are seeing a tremendous rise in the development of polymeric drug delivery methods based on both natural and manmade polymers. The development of biocompatible and biologically relevant copolymers and dendrimers for the treatment of cancer, including their usage as vehicles for strong anticancer medicines, has been fruitful. A new paradigm for the design of polymeric drug and gene delivery systems will emerge from the fusion of viewpoints from the synthetic and biological sectors.
The field of polymer science and engineering benefits greatly from the use of molecular modelling and simulations. These computational methods allow for predictions and give explanations for macromolecular structure, dynamics, thermodynamics, and microscopic and macroscopic material qualities that have been experimentally seen. With recent improvements in computational power, polymer simulations can help with the design and discovery of in vitro macromolecular materials in a synergistic manner. Care must be taken to verify the validity and reproducibility of these simulations if significant results are to be achieved and this technology's expanding power is to be properly leveraged.
With these factors in mind, we go over our philosophy for carefully creating or choosing the best models, running, and evaluating polymer simulations in this perspective. In order to inform potential polymer simulators about how to increase the validity, utility, and impact of their polymer computational research, we highlight best practises, significant challenges, and significant advancements in model development/selection, computational method choices, advanced sampling methods, and data analysis.
Biopolymer scaffolds can control the formation of connective tissue to reduce scarring and enable cellular organisation into tissue substitutes. Full-thickness burns can be successfully treated with cultured skin substitutes (CSS), which are made of autologous fibroblasts and keratinocytes on a biopolymer sponge. The current CSS model has some visible benefits, but it is obvious that other manufacturing techniques could enhance the look and performance of bioengineered skin. When compared to freeze-dried sponges, electrospinning of biopolymers offers advantages in terms of production precision and composition diversity. Electrospun biopolymer scaffolds with tailored architectures and degradation rates have been found to improve mechanical strength and stability, lessen wound contraction, and encourage the engraftment of epidermal tissue substitutes.
The manufacture of plastics, fibres, rubber and elastomers, engineered composites, coatings, adhesives, and films all depend on polymers to some extent. The use of polymers' electrical and optical properties as well as their potential as biomaterials for high-tech applications is gaining popularity. The research being done at Polymer Technology reflects the expansion of the polymer industry both domestically and internationally. These operations span a variety of macromolecular science disciplines, such as monomer synthesis, organometallic synthesis (catalysts), polymerization, physical characterization, ageing, processing of polymers, mechanical behavior and analysis, and the creation of novel materials.
The advisory board and editors of Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics wondered what the most crucial areas of the field in the future may be to learn what the future holds for polymer research. They highlighted three key topics after taking into account the scientific merits and socioeconomic benefits: Nearly half of the authors concluded that one of the most significant subjects in the future will be the creation and discovery of new types of polymers with unique properties and uses. The development of novel synthesis techniques and polymers for a sustainable and circular economy came next.
The modification of polymers is interdisciplinary in nature, spanning the conventional borders of materials science and engineering, biochemistry, medicine, physics, and medicine. People interested in polymer modification should have a wide range of training due to its interdisciplinary character in order to allow for the optimal application of learned information. Modifying polymers is meant to give the new modified material new, frequently desired features including improved thermal stability, multiphase physical responses, biological resistance, compatibility, or degradability, impact response, flexibility, rigidity, etc.
Any process called polymerization involves the chemical combination of relatively tiny molecules, known as monomers, to create a very big chainlike or network molecule, known as a polymer. The monomer molecules could all be the same or could stand in for two, three, or more distinct compounds. In order to create a product with particular distinctive physical features, such as elasticity, high tensile strength, or the capacity to form fibers, at least 100 monomer molecules must typically be mixed; frequently, thousands of monomer units are merged into a single polymer molecule.
Typically, two types of polymerization are differentiated. Each stage of condensation polymerization is accompanied by the creation of a molecule of some simple chemical, frequently water. In contrast to polymerization, which results in the production of byproducts, monomers react to create polymers. Typically, addition polymerizations take place in the presence of catalysts, which occasionally exercise control over structural elements that significantly affect the polymer's characteristics.
Our research focuses on a variety of topics in materials science and polymer chemistry. Polymer nanostructures, polymer membranes, and polyurethanes are the three main topics of current research. Our focus is on the creation of intricate macromolecular structures and the comprehension of their structure-property interactions, both of which are essential for enhancing polymer functionality and developing novel materials. For a variety of applications, such as fuel cells, flow batteries, sensors, drug delivery, protein binding, energetic polymers, coatings, ecologically friendly polymers, etc., we aim to produce distinctive polymeric materials.
To create the newly created polymers, we use step-growth, emulsion, photo, radical, and RAFT polymerization processes. In order to create innovative ion exchange membranes, miscible mixtures, polymer gels and hydrogels, colloids, core-shell nanostructures, and Nano composites for use in the aforementioned application areas, our group uses these synthetic polymers.
A type of materials known as polymers is made up of tiny, repeating chemical units. A monomer is a polymer's basic unit of repetition or building block. Covalent bonds between monomers are used in the chemical procedure known as polymerization, also known as polymer synthesis, to create polymer structures. The degree of polymerization, also known as the number of repeating units in the chain, determines the length of the polymer chain (DP). The sum of the molecular weights of the repeating unit and the DP yields the polymer's molecular weight. The molecular weight, structure (linear or branched), and DP are the primary factors that affect the fundamental properties of polymers.
Contrary to many other quality assurance and control (QA/QC) techniques for raw materials, polymer analysis is a very comprehensive process. Typically, polymeric materials are composed of a number of monomers joined together by a chain of covalent bonds supported by an interconnected carbon atom "backbone." A monomer chain may have hundreds of thousands of monomers connected together. The fact that the underlying polymerization reactions, which are used to synthesis polymers and plastics, are exceedingly diverse and produce a correspondingly vast range of materials, further adds to this complexity.
Prior to performing polymer characterization, there are a number of parameters to consider. Some of the key criteria in advanced polymer analysis includes:
- Antioxidant analysis
- Pigment concentration
- Absolute/relative MW
- Percent of filler
- Additive quantitation
- Copolymer analysis
- Residual monomer concentration
- Crosslink density
Under the past two years, 175 top-notch studies examining the processing and characteristics of various polymer-based systems have been published in the section "Polymer Processing and Performance" of Polymers. About 110 papers have been specifically devoted to various processing techniques, including melt processing, laser technologies, supercritical fluid processing, and 3D printing, and have taken into consideration a variety of intriguing polymer-based systems, in particular Nano composites and nanobiocomposites. These papers cover the 3D printing of various polymer systems in pertinent detail. In 35 studies, the electrical, mechanical, viscoelastic, anti-UV, and flame retardant properties of the polymer Nano composites were examined. Finally, the last 29 studies covered a variety of polymer system features.
The study of polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical characteristics, and the dynamics of reactions involving the degradation and polymerization of monomers and polymers, respectively, are all topics covered in the branch of physics known as polymer physics. Polymer physics was initially a subfield of statistical physics, albeit it now emphasizes the viewpoint of condensed matter physics. In the discipline of polymer science, which is thought of as the practical aspect of polymers, polymer physics and polymer chemistry are also related.
Because polymers are big molecules, they are difficult to solve deterministically. However, since large polymers (i.e., polymers with many monomers) are effectively described in the thermodynamic limit of infinitely many monomers, statistical approaches can produce findings and are frequently relevant (although the actual size is clearly finite). The morphology of polymers in liquid solutions is continuously influenced by thermal fluctuations, and statistical mechanics and dynamics techniques must be used to explain this effect. The physical behavior of polymers in solution is greatly influenced by temperature as a consequence, leading to phase changes, melts, and other phenomena.